Mudaraba / Modaraba (Trust Financing)
The term refers to a form of business contract in which one party brings capital and the other personal effort. The proportionate share in profit is determined by mutual agreement. But the loss, if any, is borne only by the owner of the capital, in which case the entrepreneur gets nothing for his labour. The financier is known as 'rab-al-maal' and the entrepreneur as 'mudarib'. As a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks, it is a contract in which all the capital is provided by the Islamic bank while the business is managed by the other party.
The profit is shared in pre-agreed ratios, and loss, if any, unless caused by negligence or violation of terms of the contract by the 'mudarib' is borne by the Islamic bank. The bank passes on this loss to the depositors. There is no loss sharing in a Mudaraba contract.
Profit and loss sharing is more accurate description of the Musharaka contract. The Mudaraba contract may better be represented by the expression profit sharing Mudaraba is an Islamic contract in which one party supplies the money and the other provides management in order to do a specific trade. The party supplying the capital is called owner of the capital. The other party is referred to as worker or agent who actually runs the business. In the Islamic Jurisprudence, different duties and responsibilities have been assigned to each of these two.
As a matter of principle the owner of the capital does not have a right to interfere in to the management of the business enterprise which is the sole responsibility of the Agent x. However, he has every right to specify such conditions that would ensure better management of his money. That is why sometime Mudaraba is referred as sleeping partnership. An important characteristic of Mudaraba is the arrangement of profit sharing.
The profits in a Mudaraba agreement may be shared in any proportion agreed between the parties before hand. However, the loss is to be completely borne by the owner of the capital. In case of loss, the capital owner shall bear the monetary loss and agent shall lose the reward of his effort. Mudaraba could be individual or joint.
Islamic banks practice Mudaraba in its both forms. In case of individual Mudaraba an Islamic bank provides finance to a commercial venture run by a person or a company on the basis of profit sharing. The joint Mudaraba may be between the investors and the bank on a continuing basis. The investors keep their funds in a special fund and share the profits without even the liquidation of those financing operations that have not reached the stage of final settlement. Many Islamic Investment Funds operate on the basis of joint Mudaraba.
A Mudarabah is an Investment partnership, whereby the investor (the Rab ul Mal) provides capital to another party/entrepreneur (the Mudarib) in order to undertake a business/investment activity. While profits are shared on a pre-agreed ratio, loss of investment is born by the investor only. The mudarib loses its share of the expected income.
In a mudaraba contract, the person or party who acts as entrepreneur.
The mudarib is the entrepreneur or investment manager in a mudarabah who invests the investor's funds in a project or portfolio in exchange for a share of the profits. For example, a mudarabah is essentially similar to a diversified pool of assets held in a Discretionary Asset Management Portfolio.
Murabaha / Morabaha (Cost-Plus Financing)
Lit: sale on profit. Technically a contract of sale in which the seller declares his cost and profit. This has been adopted as a mode of financing by a number of Islamic banks. As a financing technique, it involves a request by the client to the bank to purchase a certain item for him. The bank does that for a definite profit over the cost which is settled in advance. Some people have questioned the legality of this financing technique because of its similarity to riba or interest.
In its modern form Murabaha has become the single most popular technique of financing amongst the Islamic banks all over the world. It has been estimated that 80 to 90 percent of financial operations of some Islamic banks belong to this category. The Murabaha mode of finance operates in the following way: The client approaches an Islamic bank to get finance in order to purchase a specific commodity. An interest-based bank would lend the money on interest to this customer. The customer would go and buy the required commodity from the market. This option is not available to the Islamic bank, as it does not operate on the basis of interest. It can not lend the money on interest. It can not lend money with zero interest rate, as it has to make some money to stay in the business.
Some portion of total finance may be offered as an interest free loan, however, the banking institutions have to make profit in order to stay in business. Hence, what course of action is open to the bank? The Murabaha model offers a solution. The bank purchases the commodity on cash and sells it to the customer on a profit. Since the client has no money, he buys the commodity on deferred payment basis. Thus, the client got the commodity for which he wanted the finance and the Islamic bank made some profit on the amount it had spent in acquiring the commodity.
There are a number of requirements f or this transaction to be a real transaction to meet the Islamic standards of a legal sale. The whole of Murabaha transaction is to be completed in two stages. In the first stage, the client requests the bank to undertake a Murabaha transaction and promises to buy the commodity specified by him, if the bank acquires the same commodity. Of course, the promise is not a legal binding. The client may go back on his promise and the bank risks the loss of the amount it has spent. In the second stage, the client purchases the good acquired by the bank on a deferred payments basis and agrees to a payment schedule. Another important requirement of Murabaha sale is that two sale contracts, one through which the bank acquires the commodity and the other through which it sells it to the client should be separate and real transactions.
The Murabaha form of financing is being widely used by the Islamic banks to satisfy various kinds of financing requirements. It is used to provide finance in various and diverse sectors e. g. in consumer finance for purchase of consumer durable such as cars and household appliances, in real estate to provide housing finance, in the production sector to finance the purchase of machinery, equipment and raw material etc. However, probably the most common and the most popular application of Murabaha is in financing the short-term trade for which it is eminently suitable. Murabaha contracts are also used to issue letters of credit and to provide financing to import trade.
(Cost-plus financing) This is a contract sale between the bank and its client for the sale of goods at a price which includes a profit margin agreed by both parties. As a financing technique, it involves the purchase of goods by the bank as requested by its client. The goods are sold to the client with a mark-up. Repayment, usually in instalments is specified in the contract.
Purchase and resale. Instead of lending out money, the capital provider purchases the desired commodity (for which the loan would have been taken out) from a third party and resells it at a predetermined higher price to the capital user. By paying this higher price over instalments, the capital user has effectively obtained credit without paying interest.
Musharaka (Venture Capital)
Musharaka is another popular techniques of financing used by Islamic banks. It could roughly be translated as partnership. In this technique two or more financiers provide finance for a project. All partners are entitled to a share in the profits resulting from the project in a ratio which is mutually agreed upon. However, the losses, if any, are to be shared exactly in the proportion of capital proportion.
All partners have a right to participate in the management of the project. However, the partners also have a rig ht to waive the right of participation in favour of any specific partner or person. There are two main forms of Musharaka: Permanent Musharaka and Diminishing Musharaka. These are briefly explained below:
* Permanent Musharaka
In this form of Musharaka an Islamic bank participates in the equity of a project and receives a share of profit on a pro rata basis. The period of contract is not specified. So it can continue so long as the parties concerned wish it to continue. This technique is suitable for financing projects of a longer life where funds are committed over a long period and gestation period of the project may also be long.
* Diminishing Musharaka
Diminishing Musharaka allows equity participation and sharing of profit on a pro rata basis but also provides a method through which the equity of the bank keeps on reducing its equity in the project and ultimately transfers the ownership of the asset on of the participants. The contract provides for a payment over and above the bank share in the profit for the equity of the project held by the bank. That is the bank gets a dividend on its equity. At the same time the entrepreneur purchases some of its equity. Thus, the equity held by the bank is progressively reduced. After a certain time the equity held b y the bank shall come to zero and it shall cease to be a partner. Musharaka form of financing is being increasingly used by the Islamic banks to finance domestic trade, imports and to issue letters of credit. It could also be applied in agriculture and Industry.
Profit and loss sharing. It is a partnership where profits are shared as per an agreed ratio whereas the losses are shared in proportion to the capital/investment of each partner. In a Musharakah, all partners to a business undertaking contribute funds and have the right, but not the obligation, to exercise executive powers in that project, which is similar to a conventional partnership structure and the holding of voting stock in a limited company. This equity financing arrangement is widely regarded as the purest form of Islamic financing.